RADIOCARBON ACCELERATOR UNIT

The program is simple to use for basic radiocarbon calibration for which results are given both in text and graphical form.

Models based on archaeological or geological information can be included in the analysis. The information for such analysis can be entered using the windows interface or in the form of text command files.

- Installation
- Getting Started
- Archaeological and Environmental Considerations
- Program Operation
- Tutorial Examples
- CQL Command Summary
- Mathematical Methods
- Calibration Data
- File Formats and Directory Structure
- Error Messages
- References

- Bronk Ramsey 1994 (first release notice)
- Bronk Ramsey 1995 (main introduction to program)
- Bronk Ramsey 1998 (approach and plans)
- Bronk Ramsey 2001 (developments since 1995)
- Bronk Ramsey, van der Plicht and Weninger 2001 (D_Sequence method and tests of other methods)

If you use this program, you should quote the reference for the calibration curve used, the version of OxCal (with any non-standard options set) and the references Bronk Ramsey 1995 and Bronk Ramsey 2001. If you are wiggle-matching tree-ring sequences you should quote Bronk Ramsey, van der Plicht and Weninger 2001.

For further information contact the author:

Dr. C. Bronk Ramsey

Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit

Research Lab for Archaeology

6 Keble Rd.

Oxford OX1 3QJ

U.K.

christopher.ramsey@rlaha.ox.ac.uk

You will need a PC running Windows95 or similar. The program is supplied as a self extracting file. Copy this (using Windows Explorer) to a suitable directory for the installation such as:

`C:\Program Files\OxCal3`

Don't try to install this on top of previous versions of OxCal as the new version is sufficiently different that this might cause problems.

Then extract the program by double clicking on the OCDxx.exe file.

A shortcut to `OxCal.exe` can be created in the normal way.

The new version can read all old input (.14i) files but has been designed to keep these separate from the temporary data files and program files. You should therefore copy any only input files to a suitable working directory such as:

`C:\My Documents\OxCal3`

All new input files should be saved here too.

`N:\Program Files\OxCal3`

With the input files being saved in a working directory which has read- write access - eg:

`H:\OxCal3`

When you first run the program in such a situation it would be worth saving a blank input file in this directory immediately by pressing the button. This will ensure that any datafiles produced are stored in the right place.

Like all windows programs, OxCal can be started by double clicking on the program icon from Windows Explorer. More conveniently you can create a shortcut and put it on your desktop or start menu.

One the program has been run once you can also start it by double
clicking on any input file (with a `.14i` extension).

with the name of the sample (optional), a radiocarbon date and error term.

A probability distribution will be displayed along with the ranges. If you wish to incorporate a plot into a work processor file it can be copied and pasted as with any other editor.

The display can be printed in the normal way assuming you have a printer capable of producing graphical output from windows by pressing the button.

To produce a series of plots is almost as simple. First press the button to get a new plot input window. You will see that this window has two visible panes. Drag the (radiocarbon date) icon from the right hand pane onto the (plot) icon in the left hand pane. Fill in the details of the radiocarbon date in the dialogue box. Repeat this operation as many times as you wish to build up the plot. The order can be changed, if you wish, by dragging the icons around.

Once you have specified the plot press the button to perform the calculations. You will then be presented with a results window allowing you to select how you would like the results to be presented. Try double clicking on the three icons:

- Full log file - full details in text form
- Tabulated results - tabulated results
- Plotted results - multi-plot

The results in any of these output windows can be saved to a filename of your chose or copied into another program. Close the windows when you have finished with them. When you close the input window you will be asked if you wish to save the entries you have made.

The Output Wizard helps you through these operations.

Catlin Buck and Cliff Litton and their teams must also be mentioned as the originators of the concept of using Bayesian statistics in this context and without them that aspect of the program would have been unlikely to have been produced.

Goeff Nichols of Aukland University brought many fresh ideas to the subject, in particular the notion that the 'Boundaries' themselves should be poisson distributed as well as the individual events. He also suggested many improvements to the MCMC algoriths used which have helped to improve the convergence of the calculations.

The VERA group in Vienna are due thanks both for the financial support of the developments of version 3.0 and for many useful discussions, especially with Werner Rom and Peter Steier. Stephan Puchegger also very helpfully pointed out an incomplete treatment of the calibration procedure where there are variations in the calibration curve uncertainty (especially important over the transition to the pre-holocene part of the calibration curve).

Finally I would like to thank Paula Reimer for allowing me to distribute the Intcal98 dataset with this program.

Christopher Ramsey

This section is not intended to explain how to use the program but
rather explain the range of information which can be dealt with.
Throughout the text key words are included such as
(`R_Date`) which refer to the
relevant program commands.
The use of these will become clear in the subsequent sections
of the manual and can be ignored on a first read through.

- Phases
- Sequences
- Boundaries
- Sequences with known age gaps
- Sequences with approximate gaps
- Termini
- Cross Linking
- Warning

- Times of the first and last dated events
- Duration of phases and sequences
- Using Boundaries
- Interval between two events
- The ordering of events
- Reliability of stratigraphy
- Correlation between two events

See also [Program Operation]

See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Mathematical Methods]

See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Mathematical Methods]

One feature of luminescence dates is that they sometimes have asymmetric errors associated with them these can also be entered by either method.

See also [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods]

See also [Program Operation] [Example]

There are various different sorts of combination which can be performed:

See also [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods]
If the radiocarbon dates have been made on sample of different ages
(where the age differences are known) the combination can be done after
calibration using `Combine` or
`D_Sequence`.

See also [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods]

In the case of luminescence dates it is important that any combination of dates is performed before the application of the error term for the site dose rate. This will be treated correctly by this program if the raw results are entered rather than results simply in the form of calendar ages.

See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Mathematical Methods]

See also [Program Operation]

See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Mathematical Methods]

See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Mathematical Methods]

As a trivial example, a sample taken from between two layers securely dated to 1066 and 1087 will have exactly the same chronological constraints as a sample which is simply known to have come from the reign on William the Conqueror. Both cases can be treated as a sequence of: one securely dated event 1066; the item in question (perhaps with a radiocarbon date of 950BP+-30) and finally another securely dated event 1087. In terms of a stratigraphic diagram we might draw this as:

Sequence { C_Date 1066; R_Date 950 30; C_Date 1087; };The implications of such a simple sequence are fairly obvious in that the original probability distribution for the radiocarbon date will simply be truncated at the two dates 1066 and 1087. The value of analysis only becomes significant in more complicated situations where the implications of the stratigraphic information are not so obvious.

A very important point must be made which is that *radiocarbon
often do not directly date the context itself* and so a naive use of
stratigraphic information to refine the dating of the objects can be
quite wrong. As an example sample A in pit 1 may be older than sample B
in pit 2 *even if* pit 2 is older than pit 1.

The taphonomy of a site must be carefully considered in constructing a chronological stratigraphy from the physical stratigraphy.

In general the relative order of all samples is rarely known but various stratigraphic groupings can be defined.

- Phases
- Sequences
- Boundaries
- Sequences with known age gaps
- Sequences with approximate gaps
- Termini
- Cross Linking
- Warning

Phase { R_Date 2700 30; R_Date 2800 35; };This might then be part of a sequence.

If the samples form a coherent group then they should be enclosed within Boundaries.

See also [Program Operation] [Warning] [Example]

Sequence { R_Date "A" 2760 35; Phase { R_Date "B" 2700 30; R_Date "C" 2800 35; }; R_Date "D" 2660 35; };The stratigraphic information from most sites can in fact be written solely in terms of nestings of phases and sequences. However,

Sequence { C_Date 1066; Gap 10; R_Date 950 30; C_Date 1087; };(Please note that in this manual and for this program sequences are always written in the order old to young although they can be displayed in reverse order for consistency with physical archaeological stratigraphy).

See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Warning]

As an example in the case given above we might have:

Sequence { Boundary Start; Sequence { R_Date 800 35; Phase { R_Date 750 30; R_Date 800 35; }; R_Date 660 35; }; Boundary End; };Any coherrent group of events should be contained within boundaries in this way in order to signal that they all belong to one period.

See also [`Using boundaries]

D_Sequence { R_Date 2760 35; Gap 30; R_Date 2910 30; Gap 30; R_Date 2870 35; };See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Warning]

V_Sequence { R_Date 3000 35; Gap 30 20; R_Date 2910 30; Gap 30 20; R_Date 2870 35; };See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Warning]

Sequence { R_Date 980 35; TPQ { C_Date 1066; }; R_Date 930 30; };See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Warning]

Sequence { R_Date "A" 900 30; R_Date "B" 830 35; }; Sequence { R_Date "C" 940 35; TPQ { XReference "A"; }; R_Date "D" 890 70; };Such use of references should be used with caution and combinations of sequences and phases used where possible.

See also [Program Operation] [Warning]

The taphonomy of a site must be carefully considered in constructing a chronological stratigraphy from the physical stratigraphy.

- Times of the first and last dated events
- Duration of phases and sequences
- Using Boundaries
- Interval between two events
- The ordering of events
- Reliability of stratigraphy
- Correlation between two events

Sequence { Boundary Start; Sequence { R_Date 800 35; Phase { First; R_Date 750 30; R_Date 800 35; Last; }; R_Date 660 35; }; Boundary End; };It should be stressed that to use this to estimate the start and end of phases relies on the fact that the distribution of dated samples within the group are representative of the archaeological phase in question. If no objects have been recovered from the first century of a period no amount of statistical analysis can determine when that period began! Furthermore if there are no dated events prior to the period and a large number of dated events within it statistical analysis is liable to indicate that the period started earlier than it actually did simply because of the inevitable scatter in the measurements. These caveats are no more or less relevant to non-mathematical methods of analysis and simply imply good archaeological practice in bracketing periods.

See also [Using boundaries] [Program Operation] [Example] [Mathematical Methods]

Sequence { Boundary Start; Sequence { R_Date 800 35; Phase { R_Date 750 30; R_Date 800 35; Span; }; R_Date 660 35; }; Boundary End; };Clearly you should bear in mind the caveats mentioned in the preceding section.

See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Mathematical Methods]

Sequence { Boundary Start; Phase { R_Date 750 30; R_Date 830 30; R_Date 820 30; R_Date 760 30; R_Date 810 30; R_Date 800 30; }; Boundary End; Span; };Using such a model will give a much more realistic estimate of the phase boundaries than simply assuming that the events are unconstrained (ie not using Boundaries at all) and estimating when the first and last events took place. If the phase is well constrained anyway the results will be very similar.

See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Mathematical Methods]

Sequence { R_Date 800 35; Interval; R_Date 660 35; };It is also possible to calculate a probability distribution for the difference between any two events in an analysis (

See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Mathematical Methods]

See also [Program Operation] [Example] [Mathematical Methods]

Sequence { R_Date 970 35; R_Date 1180 30? R_Date 930 35; };This would give a fairly low probability of being true (in fact 0.7%).

No provision has been made for assigning probabilities to the veracity of dated events as such a practice seems rather arbitrary and virtually impossible to justify.

See also [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods]

See also [Program Operation] [Example]

- Chronological Information
- Dating Simulation
- Combinations
- Stratigraphic Information
- Requesting Additional Information from the Analysis
- Probabilities of being before and after events
- Ordering of Events
- Adding extra plotting instructions
- Removing lines from a command file

- Calibration and Calculation
- MCMC Sampling
- Calculation Times
- Relationship files
- Log files
- Probabilities and agreement or likelihood indices
- Convergence
- Calculation options

- Overview of Plots
- Control over the Plotting Procedure
- Using Plots
- Plot Options
- Style Options
- Viewing the Calibration Curve

As an example of this consider the process of making up a multi-plot which was discussed in the section on producing a multi-plot. In that case an input window was opened and a few radiocarbon dates were added. Unknown to the user a command file was produced which might have looked something like:

Plot "Example 1" { R_Date "OxA-1011" 2340 60; R_Date "OxA-1012" 3550 70; R_Date "OxA-1013" 3670 50; };The user then would use the button (or the [File|Analyse] menu item) to perform the calculation and the button (or the [File|Create Plots] menu item) to actually create and display the plot.

All information is added in essentially the same way. The right hand pane of the input window has a tree organised into the various different types of information you might wish to add.

Let us consider one of the examples given in section on `Archaeological Considerations':

Sequence { Boundary; Sequence { R_Date 800 35; Phase { R_Date 750 30; R_Date 800 35; }; R_Date 660 35; }; Boundary; };To enter the data for this press the button to get a new window. Then find the (

The program will they ask you if you wish to put automatic boundaries around this sequence - answer YES.

The first radiocarbon date would then be entered by dragging the
(`R_Date`) icon
over (ensuring that the sequence branch of the tree is expanded) and
dropped onto the 'Queries' icon within the sequence.
The phase can be added in the same way but this time say NO to the addition
of surrounding boundaries.
The two radiocarbon dates would then be added to the phase (while
it is expanded). The phase branch can then be minimised by pressing on
the associated button.
The final radiocarbon date is then added after the phase as before.
Note that the sequence is in chronological order (oldest first).

Items can be added in any order. Just remember that if you wish to add items to a group (such as a phase) ensure that it is expanded (using if necessary) whereas if you wish to add an item just after the group it should be collapsed (using if necessary). Items can be moved around, copied, pasted and deleted in the normal way. To change the values for an item simply double click on the values. From the windows interface it is always possible to delete the last item or change the data if some mistake has been made.

The actual text of the input can be seen in the bottom left hand pane of the window by dragging up the bar just above the bottom. This text can be edited directly as long as you press the button first. Clearly such editing does not have the safeguards associated with Windows entry and so care must be taken to keep the syntax of the commands correct (see `CQL Command Summary').

Once the data has been entered save it using the
button.
Such files should have the file extension `.14i`.
They can then be recalled using the
button.
You can copy and paste whole tree branches from one model to another
if you wish.

Adding a large number of (for example) radiocarbon dates from a database or spreadsheet is easy. The format should be two columns (date and error) or three (name, date and error). Simply copy the data from the database/spreadsheet and paste it into the model tree.

This looks rather like input file and can be manipulated in a similar way. There are essentially two ways of using this: the toolbar can be used to generate the results in text form (using the button) or in plot form (using the button); alternatively individual elements can be selected by double clicking on then in the plot organiser window.

The results are given in two text formats:

the latter being most useful for entry into databases and spreadsheets.Plots can be generated in several different forms using the toolbar:

- Normal multiple plots (as shown below)
- Individual plots for each item
- Plots on the calibration curve

And the posterior distributions which are the result of the full analysis like this:

Here the dark histograms show the posterior distributions and the outlines the priors (no account taken of the constraints). Note that the bourdaries mean that it has been assumed that all of the events come from one uniformly represented period. For this reason the last date is more likely to be similar to the others than to be an outlier.

This has completed all of the steps needed to perform the calculations.

A large number of data files are produced during the calculations and if you have finished with all of these you can press the button to delete all of these for this project. Any plot archives which have been saved will not be deleted but all log files, data files and plot organisation files will be deleted.

- open a new window using the button
- copy the data from the database or spreadsheet: the format should be two columns (date and error) or three (name, date and error)
- paste the data using the button
- press the button to perform the calculations
- copy the data using the button
- paste into the database or spreadsheet

In addition to the information here you should now be in a position to make sense of the commands given in the section on `Archaeological Considerations' and you should also be able to call up the example run files either using the button or simply by clicking on the example file icon in this manual.

- Chronological Information
- Dating Simulation
- Combinations
- Stratigraphic Information
- Requesting Additional Information from the Analysis
- Probabilities of being before and after events
- Ordering of Events
- Adding extra plotting instructions
- Removing lines from a command file

Within multi-plots or other groups dates can be offset using the
`Offset`
command. For example a carved piece of wood thought to
be 60+-10 years old at the time of felling might have been
radiocarbon dated. A probability distribution for its felling date
would then be given by the two commands:

R_Date 980 50; Offset 60 10;Note that the offset is positive to produce a later probability distribution.

Luminescence dates are another type of chronological information that can
be entered. Assuming you are not simply entering them as calendar ages,
the year of measurement, dose rate and error in the dose rate must be
entered. Instead of entering the calendar ages you can then enter the
sample estimated doses (prefixed by ``d`'). For example:

Plot { Year 1994; Dose 2.0e-3; Error 5%; C_Date d1.0 d0.2; C_Date d1.1 d0.2; C_Date d1.3 d0.2; };In this case the first date will be calculated from the dose rate to be 500+-100 years before 1994 and then an additional error of 5% added in. The error is always given in terms of a percentage as above or as a proportion (as in

R_Simulate -500 60;In this case you will find that the errors associated with the radiocarbon dates are always large. Every time you recalculate this you will get a different radiocarbon date (with a similar distribution to the measurements you would expect to get).

See also [Archaeological Considerations]

See also [Archaeological Considerations]

Note that groups or related events (coming from one period) should be enclosed with boundaries. The 'Auto Boundary' feature of the program is designed to help with this. When you add a phase or a model the program asks whether the group is a well defined separate group (rather than being just a part of a larger group). If you answer yes the phase or sequence will be bracketted by boundaries.

Within sequences
termini ante quem and
termini post quem can be defined using
`TAQ` and
`TPQ`.

The special case of `wiggle-matching' is
covered by the defined sequence
command (`D_Sequence`).
In such a group each item must be separated by a
`Gap`
command giving the separation between the measured samples.
The same calculation can also be performed in a slightly different
way using
`Combine`
(see `D_Sequence`).
The similar case of sequences where the gap is only know approximately
is covered by the variable sequence command
(`V_Sequence`)
within which each item must be separated by a gap with an
error term.

It is also possible to put
extra constraints
on a date by referring
to it in more than one place using the command
`XReference`.
Consider the example from
`Archaeological Considerations':

Sequence { R_Date "A" 900 30; R_Date "B" 830 60; }; Sequence { R_Date "C" 940 60; TPQ { XReference "A"; }; R_Date "D" 890 70; };Here: A must be before B and D; B must be after A; C must be before D; D must be after A and C.

NOTE: that cross references can be conveniently entered using the Windows interface by holding down the [Ctrl] key and dragging from the cross reference to the new position.

See also [Archaeological Considerations]

So as an example where they have all been requested one might have:

Sequence { R_Date "K" 2760 60; Interval "I"; Phase "1" { First "B"; R_Date "L" 2700 50; R_Date "M" 2800 60; Last "E"; Span "S"; }; R_Date "N" 2670 60; R_Date "O" 2660 60; Difference "D" "N" "K"; };In this example the distributions B and E will be plotted with the distributions for K, L, M, N and O which are produced by the analysis. Distributions I (which gives the interval between K and the first item in phase 1), S (which gives the span of phase 1) and D (the time between K and N) will all be plotted on a separate page of the analysis output since they represent age differences rather than absolute ages.

NOTE: that to enter the paramters for
Difference using the Windows
interface you can just hold down the [Ctrl] key and drag the parameters
onto the (expanded) icon.
See also `Shift`.

If you wish to question the presence of a item in a sequence this is done
by ending the command with a ``?`' instead of a ``;`' or drag
over the icon. This removes the constraints
imposed by the position of this sample in the sequence and tells the
analysis program to calculate the probability that a sample should be
in this position in the sequence (see section on
`Probability and agreement indices'
and `Question`).

Correlations between
two events can be plotted using
`Correlate`
this gives plots of like:

After "A" {R_Date 3050 60;};The main use for such distributions is for use in combinations where you might wish to add into a probability distribution the fact that the event must be after or before another.

Order { R_Date "A" 1100 50; R_Date "B" 1000 50; R_Date "C" 900 50; };gives the resultant probabilities:

74.2% A B C 20.4% A C B 5.1% B A C 0.1% B C A 0.1% C A BNote that probabilities below 0.1% are not shown and that a maximum of 50 different orders are reported. There is also a limit of 50 on the number of items that can be ordered in this way.

See also [Archaeological Considerations]

- Calibration and Calculation
- MCMC Sampling
- Calculation Times
- Relationship files
- Log files
- Probabilities and agreement or likelihood indices
- Convergence
- Calculation options

See also [Mathematical Methods]

During the sampling information is displayed indicating how it is progressing. A typical message would be something like:

Done: 43.2% Ok: 100.0% C>=98.6%indicating that the sampling process is 43.2% complete, all of the iterations fit the constraints and the worst convergence value so far has been 98.6%.

Note that if the convergence is poor to begin with the program will continue to lengthen the sampling time until it has risen above 95%.

See also [Mathematical Methods]

- Chi squared test
- Agreement index
- Overall agreement of models
- Overall agreement for combinations
- Probabilities

R_Combine 913+-5 (df=3 T=1.9(5% 7.8))The value given for T is the chi squared value calculated and the value given in brackets is the level above which T it should not rise (the degrees of freedom are given by df).

See also [Mathematical Methods]

Sequence {A=100.9%(A'c=60.0%)}where A is the calculated overall agreement index and A'c is the level below which it is not expected to fall.

See also [Mathematical Methods]

Combine test [n=4 A=124.4%(An=35.4%)]where A is the calculated agreement index and An is the value (dependent on n) below which it should not fall.

Related to this agreement index is a value calculated if you
question a value for a combination
(`Combine`) or a wiggle
match (`D_Sequence`).
This value is again about 100% if the questioned item combines as
well as expected and decreases in proportion to the probability
if the combination is not very likely.
The value of this can also rise higher than 100% if the agreement
is unusually good.

See also [Mathematical Methods]

See also [Mathematical Methods]

The number of iterations is automatically increased until the convergence is satifactory.

The convergence can also be studied in more detail by opting to store convergence data during the sampling process (see Calculation options). If this is done then after the calculation the convergence for individual distributions can be seen in square brackets either in the plot organiser or on the plots themselves.

If convergence data has been included the actual sampling process can be observed by clicking on the button or using [File|Individual plots]. The resultant plot will look something like:

The dots each represent single samples. This is only a small section of the total sampling run but it allows you to see if the model is getting 'stuck' in particular parts of the distribution.

- Calibration Curve
- Reporting
- Resolution
- Ranges
- Advanced settings
- Input
- Default system options
- Command line equivalents

There is another option relating to the calibration curve: whether or not a cubic function is used in interpolating the calibration curve (see mathematical methods for details) - this produces a smoother looking curve and distributions but makes very little difference to any numerical values. See also [Calibration Data] and [Resolution]

______________________________________________ Storage Result Resolution Resolution _____________________ 1 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 1 10 1 15 1 20 10 100 10 200 100 1000 100 _____________________See also [Calibration Data]

A option for rounding range values is provided. This will always round ranges outwards and the resolution of the rounding is dependent on the total range and the storage resolution.

______________________________________________ Total range Round to the nearest ______________________________________________ 1 - 50 1 year 50 - 100 5 years 100 - 500 10 years 500 - 1000 50 years 1000 - 5000 100 years ... ... ______________________________________________If the storage resolution is 4 years the ranges will be rounded to the nearest 5 years regardless of how short the total range is, if rounding is switched on.

If you prefer the resolution of rounding can be set by the user.

The Uniform span prior affects the way sequences of bounded events are treated (see mathematical methods). This option should normally be ON. It can be set to OFF for compatability with previous (earlier than 3.2) versions of the program.

Inclusion of the convergence data is dealt with above.

The inverse square modelling option allows analysis on an inverse time scale rather than a linear scale. This can be useful at the limit of radiocarbon or when dealing with very long timescales (see Bronk Ramsey 1998).

If the distributions after analysis are not sufficiently smooth, you may wish to change the default number of iterations for the MCMC sampler. This is normally set to 30k. Note that the program will automatically increase the number of iterations if the convergence is poor.

________________________ Option Setting ____________________________ Calib curve intcal04.14c Cubic interpolation on Use BC/AD (not BP) on Use -/+ for BC/AD off Reverse plot order off Resolution 5 1 Sigma ranges on 2 Sigma ranges on 3 Sigma ranges off Probability method on Round off ranges on Round by auto Whole ranges off Uniform span prior on Include conv data off Inverse square modelling off Default iterations 30k Default event type R_Date ____________________________

-afilenameappend log to a file* -b1 BP -b0 BC/AD -cfilenameuse calibration data file -d1 plot distributions -d0 no plot -fndefault iterations for sampling in thousands -g1 +/- -g0 BC/AD/BP -h1 whole ranges -h0 split ranges -inresolution ofn-lnlimit on number of data points in calibration curve (see Resolution) -m1 macro language -m0 simplified entry -n1 round ranges -n0 no rounding -o1 include converg info -o0 do not include -p1 probability method -p0 intercept method -q1 cubic interpolation -q0 linear interpolation -rfilenameread input from a file+ -s11 1 sigma ranges -s10 range not found -s21 2 sigma ranges -s20 range not found -s31 3 sigma ranges -s30 range not found -t1 terse mode -t0 full prompts -u1 uniform span prior -u0 as in OxCal v2.18 and previous -v1 reverse sequence order -v0 chronological order -wfilenamewrite log to a file* -ynround bynyears -y0 automatic rounding

* Note that with either of these options the tabbed results will then be sent to the console output and can therefore be redirected to a file or a pipe; the standard DOS redirection > or >> can be used instead if only the log file needs redirecting.

+ Note that the standard DOS redirection < can also be used.

- Overview of Plots
- Plot Options
- Control over the Plotting Procedure
- Using Plots
- Viewing the Calibration Curve

The form of the plots is generally determined by the stratigraphic relationships and the type of calculations performed. The plots are divided into up to four pages or groups of pages:

- Prior distributions (ignoring relationships)
- Posterior distributions (taking account of relationships)
- Spans, intervals and differences
- Correlation plots

- [Zoom...] determine relative size of plots produced
- [Font...] select the default font
- [Options...]
- [Style...]

Calibration data: whether or not to view the plots on the calibration curve and whether radiocarbon ages are given as percent modern or BP.

Show: you can decide whether to display the ranges (if they have been calculated); if the distributions are to be shown these can be solid black or in outline and there is an option to normalise all distributions to the same area; the prior distributions can be shown in outline on posterior plots.

X-Axis: the default is BC/AD - Calibrated BP or Radiocarbon BP can also be selected; the label can be omitted.

Multiple Plots: plots can be forced to be individual (this also displays convergence data if it has been included at the time of calculation); the analysis structure and agreement indices can be shown or not as required; the number of plots per chart can also be altered.

Once a plot has been created these aspects can be changed by reloading the plot using the button or [File|Options] on the plot viewer.

General: the relative size of the text can be altered; references and page numbers are optional as is the use of colour and italic labels for posterior distributions; the alignment grid is also optional.

Plotting can either be as smooth polygons (default) or as rectangular histograms.

Single Plots: whether or not to show the gaussian distribution and the calibration curve.

Correlation plots: solid fil and contour plots can be chosen.

- Plot options (see above) (apply to all newly created plots)
- Commands embedded in the model
- Modification in the plot organiser
- Alteration of created plots

The advantage of this method is that if the model is changed slightly and recalculated the plots will still be properly formatted.

The organisation you create can be saved with a different file name to ensure that it is not over-written by a repeat calculation. This gives considerable flexibility in arranging plots.

By raising the bar at the bottom of the window the text version of this plot organisation file can be viewed and changed. The format is given in the section on File Formats.

To access the raw data of the individual calibrations, right mouse click on the relevant icon in the plot organiser - this will bring up an editor window. This will not work if convergence data has been included as this makes the files too large to edit. See section on file formats.

- [Font] Alter the font for this plot
- [Adjust Axes] Adjust the axes
- [Modify Labels] Change the labels in this plot
- [Style] Style options for this plot
- [Zoom] Change to a specific plot size
- [Zoom In] Increase plot size
- [Zoom Out] Desrease plot size
- [Explore Curve] Explore the calibration curve (only for plots on the curve)

It is also possible to plot results on the calibration curve while viewing a plot after calculation in a subsidiary window. This is most easily achieved by using the button.

icon

You may need to configure your Browser to use OxCal to read view the model definition (.14i) files.

These examples are all taken to illustrate how the program can be used - they are not genuine archaeological examples. For real examples see Bronk Ramsey and Allen 1995, Bayliss et al 1997 and Needham et al 1998.

- Plot Example 1
- Plot Example 2
- Combine Example 1
- Combine Example 2
- Sequence Example
- Phase Example
- Order Example
- Terminus Ante Quem
- Difference and Interval Example
- Wiggle Matching Example 1
- Wiggle Matching Example 2
- Wiggle Matching Example 3
- Variable Sequence Example
- Multiple Example

This example is simply a series of dates for calibration.
Use is also made of the
`Line`
command to get a horizontal divide in the plot.
Call the file up by clicking on the above icon.
This should give you a window which looks something like this:

This window has four panes of which only the top two are visible. The right hand pane contains all of the items that you might wish to add to a plot and the left hand pane contains the plot as it has been constituted. To add extra items you would simply have to drag items from the right hand pane to the left. By dragging the frame up you should be able to see the bottom two panes too; in the left hand one of these is the text of the CQL command file which looks like this:

Plot "Test Plot 1" { R_Date "OxA-1000" 3860 60; R_Date "OxA-1001" 3956 60; R_Date "OxA-1002" 3890 50; Line; R_Date "OxA-1010" 3640 60; R_Date "OxA-1011" 3530 60; R_Date "OxA-1012" 3450 60; R_Date "OxA-1013" 3560 50; };To perform the calibration simply press the button (or use [File|Analyse...]). You should be able to see the plot organiser window which looks like this:

This window allows you to organise the plot as you wish (add labels, change orders ..etc). To actually generate the plot press the button or double click on the relevant icon within the plot organiser window.

To look at a single calibration plot simply double click on the relevant icon within the plot organiser window. To see all of the individual calibration plots press the button.

To get the results in text form press the button.
This will open two text files: `Log.14l` contains a
detailed description of the results, ranges etc; `Tabbed.14l`
contains tabulated results which can be copied into spreadsheets,
databases etc. Either of these can also be opened by double clicking on
the or icon in the plot
organiser window. The text results can be printed directly but there are no
formatting options.

Any of the plots can be printed directly from the program or copied and pasted into word processor documents. Axes, labels and fonts can be changed at any stage through the [View] menu.

This example is also a plot but this time showing more types of
chronological evidence including calendar dates, offset dates and an
integrated probability distribution.
The offsets will take some time to calculate.
Also shown in this example are simulated radiocarbon dates which use the
function `R_Simulate`.
In these a calendar date is specified and the program generates the sort
of radiocarbon date you might expect to get for a sample of this age with
an error of the size specified.
Much use has been made of these in the subsequent examples - they will
give different values every time they are run.

Plot "Example Plot 2" { R_Date 1000 60; R_Date 900 60; R_Date 800 60; C_Date 1000 50; C_Date 1100 50; C_Date 1200 50; R_Simulate 1000 50; R_Simulate 1100 50; R_Simulate 1200 50; R_Date 1000 60; Offset 0 10; R_Date 1000 60; Offset 100 10; R_Date 1000 60; Offset 200 10; Before "before" { R_Date 1000 60; }; };This example can be treated in the same way as the previous one. An additional operation you might try is to double click with the right mouse button on any of the individual icons. This will bring up the actual numerical data for the plots. This can be copied to a spreadsheet for further analysis or plotting should you wish.

This is a simple example of a combination of radiocarbon dates.

Plot "Combine Example 1" { R_Combine "Conquest" { R_Date 925 30; R_Date 875 30; R_Date 927 30; R_Date 924 30; R_Date 868 30; R_Date 936 30; }; Axis 900 1200; };Once you have calculated this you might try recalculating it with some different values. To do this return to the input window and double click on the values you wish to alter - a dialog box will allow you to alter the values.

The `Axis` command has been used
to define the limits of the x-axis in the final plot.

The example of a combination shows how gaps can be used to combine distributions with different relationships to the dated event. This is in effect a wiggle match.

Combine "Combine Example 2" { R_Date 1066 30; R_Date 1016 30; Gap 50; R_Date 966 30; Gap 100; R_Date 916 30; Gap 150; R_Date 866 30; Gap 200; R_Date 816 30; Gap 250; };When you have calculated the combination try viewing the results on the calibration curve using the button: the first page will probably have a large number of overlapping boxes but the second page should show how the combination has fitted the results to the calibration curve.

This example shows a typical application involving a sequence of items which contains a phase (ie. items with no known relative age differences). Analysing this will need MCMC sampling and will therefore take longer. The example is also set up to calculate the beginning, end and span of the phase as well as the span of the whole sequence: in the input file you should find folders () which contain these queries.

The enclosed sequence contains the obvious contstrain information. The outer sequence with the two boundaries is needed to ensure that the prior is for events Poisson distributed from a limited period of time.

Sequence "Sequence Example" { Boundary; Sequence { R_Simulate 0 30; R_Simulate 50 30; R_Simulate 100 30; R_Simulate 150 30; R_Simulate 200 30; R_Simulate 250 30; }; Boundary; Span "span seq"; };

This example shows how Boundaries can be used to give estimates for the boundaries of phases. One of the dates generated here is fairly close to the modern end of the calibration curve and an information message may be displayed: use the [Retry] button to continue. Phases can be treated as sequential (with a possible gap) or abutting. In this case phases 1 and 2 are allowed to have a gap whereas phases 2 and 3 are assumed to be abutting.

Sequence "Phase Example" { Boundary "Start 1"; Phase "1" { R_Simulate 950 50; R_Simulate 1000 50; R_Simulate 1050 50; Interval "Span 1"; !calculates interval between !Start 1 and End 1 }; Boundary "End 1"; Interval "Interval 1 to 2"; Boundary "Start 2"; Phase "2" { R_Simulate 1150 50; R_Simulate 1200 50; R_Simulate 1250 50; Interval "Span 2"; }; Boundary "2 to 3"; !Phase 2 abuts phase 3 Phase "3" { R_Simulate 1300 50; R_Simulate 1350 50; R_Simulate 1400 50; Interval "Span 3"; }; Boundary "End 3"; };Note that, using this model, spans of phases should be calculated by using

Difference "End 1" "Start 1"

This shows a simple use of the facility for determining the order of events. It is also possible to put further constraints on these items to be ordered by using cross referencing or by placing the group as a whole within a sequence.

Order "Order Example" { R_Date "A" 1100 50; R_Date "B" 1000 50; R_Date "C" 900 50; };

This example shows how a terminus ante quem can be used as a constraint. In this case the first event `OxA-1000' is known to be pre-conquest but we have no knowledge about the second event in the sequence.

Sequence "Terminus Ante Quem Example" { R_Date "OxA-1000" 970 40; TAQ { C_Date "Hastings" 1066; }; R_Date "OxA-1001" 980 60; Correlation "correlation" "OxA-1000" "OxA-1001"; };The example has also been set up to show how a correlation plot can be used. You can see from this plot the relationship between the two dated events and their relationship to the date of the conquest.

**Note:** As this is a fragment of code (which might form part of a larger
model, no boundaries have been used; the program will warn you that there are
no boundaries defined.

This shows how the difference between two dates can be evaluated using
`Difference`.
In this case the same result has also been obtained by using
the `Interval` command between the
two dates in question to find the interval.

Sequence "Difference Example" { Boundary; R_Simulate 0 30; R_Simulate 50 30; R_Simulate "test1" 100 30; Interval "testi"; R_Simulate "test2" 150 30; R_Simulate 200 30; R_Simulate 250 30; Boundary; Difference "testd" "test2" "test1"; };

The example of a piece of long lived wood from the iron age is taken here to show how such material could in principle be used to overcome the calibration problems in that period.

D_Sequence "Wiggle Matching Example 1" { First "first"; R_Simulate -550 60; Gap 50; R_Simulate -500 60; Gap 50; R_Simulate -450 60; Gap 50; R_Simulate -400 60; Gap 50; R_Simulate -350 60; Gap 50; R_Simulate -300 60; };When you have performed the calibration try viewing the distributions on the calibration curve using the button. This will show how the data has been fitted to the calibration curve.

To get this to cover the range of the curve that you want double click on the plot (which will activate in-place editing) and then use either [View|Explore Curve] or [View|Adjust Axes].

This example is similar to the previous one except that it is set up to show that in principle other types of information can be included in such an analysis.

D_Sequence "Wiggle Matching Example 2" { First "first"; R_Simulate 0 30; Gap 50; R_Simulate 50 30; Gap 50; C_Combine { C_Date 90 60; C_Date 100 60; C_Date 110 60; }; Gap 50; R_Simulate 150 30; Gap 50; R_Simulate 200 30; Gap 50; R_Simulate 250 30; };

In this example the wiggle matching includes some unmeasured rings. The program then calculates ages for these rings using the defined gaps.

D_Sequence "Wiggle Matching Example 3" { First "first"; Event "Zero"; Gap 50; R_Simulate -550 60; Gap 50; R_Simulate -500 60; Gap 50; Event "UnK"; Gap 50; R_Simulate -400 60; Gap 50; R_Simulate -350 60; Gap 50; R_Simulate -300 60; Gap 50; Event "Death"; };

This indicates the way in which approximately known age differences can be used for a sort of wiggle match.

V_Sequence "Variable Sequence Example" { R_Simulate 0 30; Gap 50 10; R_Simulate 50 30; Gap 50 10; R_Simulate 100 30; Gap 50 10; R_Simulate 150 30; Gap 50 10; R_Simulate 200 30; Gap 50 10; R_Simulate 250 30; };

This contains various examples which show how the program might be used for more complicated analysis. In particular, use is made of the fact that the main elements of a multi-plot are calculated one after another so that it is possible to use the results from the first main group in subsequent ones.

Plot "Multiple Example" { Phase { First "first"; R_Simulate 140 30; R_Simulate 120 30; R_Simulate 130 30; R_Simulate 110 30; Last "last"; Span "span phase"; }; After "after" { Prior "@first"; }; Before "before" { Prior "@last"; }; Combine { Prior "after"; Prior "before"; }; };

**R_Date**-
*syntax =*`R_Date`*[name] date [error]*`;`

R_Date OxA-1000 3000 30; R_Date OxA-1001 3000; R_Date 3000 30;In general in the syntax the term

**C_Combine**-
*syntax =*`C_Combine`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

C_Combine test {R_Date 3000 30; R_Date 3010 30;};whereas what is expected is:

C_Combine test {C_Date 1000 30; C_Date 1010 30;};

Dose 1.5e-3;If dose rates are to be used with

C_Date d1.23 d0.13;Again scientific notation may be used.

R_Date OxA-3000 3030 50;but normally they should be surrounded with quotation marks:

R_Date "Bone needle A" 3030 50;

The special functions `C_Combine` and
`R_Combine` can only contain
`C_Date` and
`R_Date` respectively
(plus the display orientated commands).

`After``Axis``Before``Boundary``C_Combine``C_Date``Calculate``Combine``Comment``Correlate``Curve``D_Sequence``Delta_R``Difference``Dose``Error``Event``Factor``First``Gap``Interval``Last``Line``Label``Mix_Curves``Offset``Order``Page``Phase``Plot``Prior``Question``R_Combine``R_Date``R_Simulate``Reservoir``Sequence``Shift``Span``Sum``TAQ``TPQ``V_Sequence``XReference``Year`

**After**-
*syntax =*`After`*[name] [*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;}*]*;

calculates the probability of any given year following a group of events; as an example`After {C_Date 1000;};`will yield 1 for all dates after 1000 and 0 for all dates before.

See [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **Axis**-
*syntax =*`Axis`*min max*`;`

defines the x-axis limits for the plot produced - remember that the labels on the left of the plot obscure some of the area so make*min*a bit lower than you actually need.

See [Program Operation] **Before**-
*syntax =*`Before`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

calculates the probability of any given year preceding a group of events; similar to`After`.

See [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **Boundary**-
*syntax =*`Boundary`*[name]*`;`

used to define which events in a model are from well defined periods and to estimate the boundaries of these periods using a model of uniform distribution; must always be used in conjunction with Sequence as in:

`Sequence {Boundary; Phase {R_Date 750 50; R_Date 800 60;}; Boundary;};`

it can be used between phases to estimate the boundary between abutting phases.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **C_Combine**-
*syntax =*`C_Combine`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

used to combine calendar dates; a chi squared test is performed.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **C_Date**-
*syntax =*`C_Date`*[name] [date [error [error]]]*`;`

used to generate a gaussian probability distribution about a calendar age with a given error term (1 sigma); if no error is given a single spike is produced; if two errors are given an asymmetric distribution is generated.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **Calculate**-
*syntax =*`Calculate`*[name]*`;`

used within a function group to ensure that only the result of the function is plotted in any outer group: thus the main plot for

`Phase {R_Date "A" 900 60; Combine "B" {R_Date 950 50; C_Date 1000 50; Calculate;};};`

will only display distributions A and B and not the details of the combination.

See [Program Operation] **Combine**-
*syntax =*`Combine`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

used to combine probability distributions of all types.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **Comment**-
*syntax =*`Comment`*[name]*`;`

this command has no effect and is equivalent to starting a line with an exclamation mark thus`Ccomment "test comment";`is equivalent to`!test comment`which is more normally used.

See [Program Operation] **Correlate**-
*syntax =*`Correlate`*name1 name2*`;`

used to produce a correlation plot between two events which are otherwise related by some stratigraphic relationships; for example the commands

`Sequence {R_Date "A" 1000 100; R_Date "B" 990 50; Correlate "R" "A" "B";};`

will produce a correlation plot R for the two dates A and B.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] **Curve**-
*syntax =*`Curve`*name [filename]*`;`

used to change the calibration curve used within the present group; note that the curve will be reset at the end of a phase, sequence etc; this command allows the user to calibrate a mixture of marine and terrestrial samples; the filename should always be specified the first time a calibration curve is used within one calculation.

See [Calibration Data] **D_Sequence**-
*syntax =*`D_Sequence`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

used to combine dates when the age separation between them is known; this is most likely to be used for `wiggle matching' of radiocarbon dates made on tree ring sequences; for example three tree rings each separated by 100 years could be combined using

`D_Sequence {R_Date 1100 50; Gap 100; R_Date 1020 50; Gap 100; R_Date 930 50;};`

This is in fact similar to

`Combine {R_Date 1100 50; Gap 200; R_Date 1020 50; Gap 100; R_Date 930 50;};`

although the latter would behave differently if nested in a sequence since it will generate a resultant distribution.

*IMPORTANT: dates are entered in chronological order (oldest first) although they can be displayed in reverse order (youngest at the top) by selecting the*

[Options|System options|reverse order] option.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **Delta_R**-
*syntax =*`Delta_R`*Delta_R [error]*`;`

Used in association with`Curve`to generate a local marine calibration curve using the Delta_R offsets as defined in Stuiver and Braziunas 1993; reservoir values are available online from Queen's University Belfast; the basic marine curve is supplied with this program; to generate a marine curve for Iceland, for example, the commands:

`Curve "marine98.14c"; Delta_R 49 19;`

could be used; this function offsets the calibration curve in radiocarbon years.

See [Calibration Data] [Mathematical Methods] **Difference**-
*syntax =*`Difference`*name name1 name2*`;`

used for calculating the time difference between two dates; this function will only work within a`Phase`a`Sequence`or a`V_Sequence`; to calculate a difference distribution between two unconstrained dates use the commands

`Phase { R_Date "A" 900 50; R_Date "B" 800 50; Difference "R" "B" "A";};`

where the resultant distribution R = B-A.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] **Dose**-
*syntax =*`Dose`*dose_rate*`;`

defines the site dose rate for luminescence type dating methods within a group; see also`Year`and`Error`; dose rates can be given in scientific notation for example`Dose 1.3E-6;`.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] **Error**-
*syntax =*`ERROR`*error_term*`;`

used for defining errors proportional to the age within a group; intended for use with`Dose`; if a series of events is being combined with`Combine`the error will be applied after combination.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **Event**-
*syntax =*`Event`*name*`;`

used to determine the distribution of an event which is constrained in some way by the model but which has no direct dating information. A model consisting almost entirely of events can be constructed to check the effective prior distributions for the model.

See [Example] **Factor**-
*syntax =*`Factor`*factor*`;`

used to multiply dates within a group by a set factor (as measured from the present which is defined by`Year`); this command is not expected to be used much except possibly in combination with`Dose`.

See [Mathematical Methods] **First**-
*syntax =*`First`*[name] [*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;}*]*;

calculates a probability distribution for the first event in a group; it can be used either with its own group as in

`First "f" {R_Date 1000 100; R_Date 1100 100};`

or to calculate the start of another group as in

`Phase {First "f"; R_Date 1000 100; R_Date 1100 100;};`

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **Gap**-
*syntax =*`GAP`*gap [error]*`;`

this command is intended primarily for use with`D_Sequence`(no gap error) and`V_Sequence`(with gap error); it can also be used in`Sequence`(no gap error) to ensure a gap between events in a sequence and in`Combine`(no gap error) where it functions rather like`Offset`.

See [Program Operation] **Interval**-
*syntax =*`Interval`*[name]*`;`

used to calculate the interval between events in a sequence; for example

`Sequence {R_Date "A" 900 50; Interval "R"; R_Date "B" 800 50;};`

will find the expected interval between A and B; the same thing can be achieved with the more general command`Difference`.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Explanatory notes] **Last**-
*syntax =*`Last`*[name] [*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;}*]*;

used to calculate the probability distribution for the last event in a group; similar in operation to`First`.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] **Line**-
*syntax =*`Line;`

used to draw a horizontal line in multiple plots.

See [Program Operation] **Label**-
*syntax =*`Label`*label*`;`

used to insert a label in a multiple plot.

See [Program Operation] **Mix_Curves**-
*syntax =*`Mix_Curves`*name name1 name2 proportion2 prop2err*`;`

used to mix radiocarbon calibration curves;*name1*and*name2*must already have been defined using`Curve`statements;*proportion2*and*prop2err*are the proportion and error in the proportion of the second curve in the mixture.

See [Calibration Data] [Mathematical Methods] **Offset**-
*syntax =*`Offset`*offset [error]*`;`

used to offset distributions (a positive offset makes the distribution younger); for example an event dated by wood which had an age of 30+-10 years would have a probability distribution given by`R_Date 3000 60; Offset 30 10;`.

`Offset`**should not be used for Delta_R corrections of marine samples as the offset is performed after calibration**: in these cases`Delta_R`should be used.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **Order**-
*syntax =*`Order`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

used in exactly the same way as Phase except that the relative order of the events will be determined by the program.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **Page**-
*syntax =*`Page;`

produces a page break in a multiple plot.

See [Program Operation] **Phase**-
*syntax =*`Phase`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

used to group events between which there are no known relationships but which may all share some relationship.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] **Plot**-
*syntax =*`Plot`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

used to group dates together for plotting purposes only.

See [Producing a multiple plot] **Prior**-
*syntax =*`Prior`*name [filename]*`;`

used to access stored probability distributions (which could be provided by the user or saved from previous calculations); thus`Prior "OxA-3000";`will retrieve the distribution from the file`OXA3000.14D`; to refer to a file already defined within a previously calculated sequence or phase use the command in the form`Prior "@OxA-3000";`which will retrieve the file`OXA3000.14S`; the filename can be used to specify a file which has not been generated by an earlier part of this calculation.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [File Formats] **Question**-
*syntax =*`Question;`

used to question the position of an event for example in a sequence; it is exactly equivalent to ending the previous command with a question mark instead of a semicolon; thus`C_Date 1000 50; Question;`is equivalent to the more normally used`C_Date 1000 50?`the commands

`Sequence {R_Date "A" 900 50; R_Date "B" 800 50? R_Date "C" 700 50;};`

will not use B in calculating the sequence but will give the probability that it occupies this position in the sequence.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **R_Combine**-
*syntax =*`R_Combine`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

used to combine radiocarbon dates before calibration; a chi squared test is performed.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **R_Date**-
*syntax =*`R_Date`*[name] date [error]*`;`

used for radiocarbon dates which are to be calibrated.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **R_Simulate**-
*syntax =*`R_Simulate`*[name] date [error]*`;`

used for seeing what kind of radiocarbon measurement would be expected for a sample with a given calendar age; thus`R_Simulate 1066 50;`will give a radiocarbon date that you might expect to get for the battle of Hastings assuming the error you expect from the radiocarbon lab is +-50; each time the command is called a different radiocarbon date will be produced.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] **Reservoir**-
*syntax =*`Reservoir`*Reservoir_Age [error]*`;`

Used in association with`Curve`to generate a calibration curve for some sort of reservoir with a known age constant; a fresh water lake might have a mean reservoir age (in calendar years) of 80+/-20 years a suitable smoothed curve might be generated by the commands:

`Curve "CAL10.DTA"; Reservoir 80 20;`

the reservoir is assumed to be small compared to the atmosphere; mixing within the reservoir is assumed to be good; a simple box diffusion model is used.

See [Calibration Data] [Mathematical Methods] **Sequence**-
*syntax =*`Sequence`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

allows the information that one event precedes another to be incorporated into the resultant probability distributions; the sequence can contain phases and functions as well as simple dated events;`TAQ`and`TPQ`functions can also be used to allow for*termini ante quem*and*termini post quem*.*IMPORTANT: dates are entered in chronological order (oldest first) although they can be displayed in reverse order (youngest at the top) by selecting the*

[Options|System options|reverse order] option.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] **Shift**-
*syntax =*`Shift`*name name1 name2*`;`

used for shifting one probability by another; this function will only work within a`Phase`a`Sequence`or a`V_Sequence`; as an example of its use consider D which lies as long after C as B is after A where we have dates for A, B and C:Phase { R_Date "A" 1200 60; R_Date "B" 1100 60; R_Date "C" 1000 60; Difference "R" "B" "A"; Shift "D" "C" "R"; };

where the resultant distribution R = B-A and so D = C+R = C+B-A as required. **Span**-
*syntax =*`Span`*[name]*`;`

used to calculate the span of a phase, sequence or other group which is defined as the probability distribution for the difference between the first and last events of a group; thus to find the span of a phase the necessary commands might be:

`Phase {R_Date 1000 100; R_Date 900 60; Span "R";};`

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] **Sum**-
*syntax =*`sum`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

used for adding probability distributions to arrive at the best estimate for the chronological distribution of the events; differs from Combine in that ranges are expanded rather than reduced with additional information; the resultant distribution does*not*relate to a single event and so cannot be used as the input to other functions; the elements within the sum are treated as a phase and can be constrained in a similar way; note that, for example, the 95% range for a`Sum`distribution give an estimate for the period in which 95% of the events took place*not*the period in which one can be 95% sure all of the events took place.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] **TAQ**-
*syntax =*`TAQ`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

similar to`TPQ`but for a*terminus ante quem*.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] **TPQ**-
*syntax =*`TPQ`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

(*terminus post quem*) used within a sequence to force all items later in the sequence to follow the items in the`TPQ`group; all items earlier in the sequence are not directly affected; thus if a coin with a date of 1066 is found between two samples in a sequence the second sample B in the sequence must be later than 1066 but that is the only direct constraint:

`Sequence {R_Date "A" 1050 60; TPQ {C_Date 1066;}; R_Date "B" 1030 60;};`

B will be forced after 1066 but A will not have to be before 1066; note that A will be indirectly affected because of the constraint that A is before B.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **V_Sequence**-
*syntax =*`V_Sequence`*[name]*`{`*command*;*command*; ...;};

similar to`D_Sequence`except that the gaps can be defined with errors; the calculations involved are actually rather different and might fail to give a result if the error is very low; the calculations may also become slow if the agreement between the results is poor.*IMPORTANT: dates are entered in chronological order (oldest first) although they can be displayed in reverse order (youngest at the top) by selecting the*

[Options|System options|reverse order] option.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] [Mathematical Methods] **XReference**-
*syntax =*`XReference`*name*`;`

used to refer to an event already defined somewhere else in the stratigraphic sequence.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation] **Year**-
*syntax =*`Year`*year*`;`

used to define the year of measurement for luminescence dates or anything for which a an age factor or proportional error term is required; if this is not defined the year is assumed to be 1950.

See [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation]

- Interpolation
- Calendar and BP dates
- Radiocarbon calibration
- Reservoir corrections
- Mixed calibration curves
- Calendar dates and Asymmetric dates
- Proportional errors and Factors
- Range calculation
- Combinations and Wiggle Matching
- First and Last Dated Events in a Group
- Offset dates and Age Differences

- Interpolation
- Calendar and BP dates
- Radiocarbon calibration
- Reservoir corrections
- Mixed calibration curves
- Calendar dates and Asymmetric dates
- Proportional errors and Factors
- Range calculation
- Combinations and Wiggle Matching
- First and Last Dated Events in a Group
- Offset dates and Age Differences

When integrations or differentiations are carried out they are at the
resolution *r _{c}*.
The details of the interpolation methods (such as methods of rounding
used) have been carefully chosen to give the expected results and
variation from the analytical values are rarely more than a single
year with the standard options.

The files for the calibration curve usually have a different resolution
to the internal storage resolution and so some form of interpolation is
needed.
This can either be linear or a cubic function depending on the setting in
the system options.
The cubic interpolation does not fit a spline function as this is very time
consuming to calculate and can have some undesirable features such as large
excursions between points.
The cubic function used here gives a smooth curve with a continuous first
differential but gives very little overall difference from the linear
interpolation.
The form of the function between two points is simply defined by the four
surrounding points. If *f _{j}* defines the function at

The calibration curve is stored in two arrays one *r _{i}* defining the
radiocarbon age of the tree rings and another

*y _{CAL}* = 1950 -

Thus:

10BP = 1940AD, 11950BP = 10000BC

It should be noted that this does imply a year 0 in the AD/BC sequence which is strictly speaking incorrect. With radiocarbon dates the problem is clearly semantic, with historical evidence it should be borne in mind that age differences across the BC/AD boundary are actually one year larger that they should be. Alternatively negative numbers (BC) should always be taken as the start of the year and positive numbers (AD) as the end. Thus -1 is the start of the first year BC whereas +1 is the end of the year 1AD. The reason for this problem is that in order to keep the internal representation of the numbers consistent it is very difficult to have to deal with a number set which goes from -1 to 1.

In this program the distribution is left normalised to a maximum of 1 rather than the actual probability of any individual year.

**NOTE** This is different to old versions of OxCal (pre 3.2) where
*p _{i}* was simply set to exp(-

See also [Archaeological Considerations]

Solution of this differential equation requires a knowledge of the curve
*R(t)* for all times before t. A linear extrapolation is assumed before
the start of the curve using a gradient estimated from the first half of
the curve *R(t)*. The uncertainties in this are assumed to be ten times larger than
those quoted for the first point in the curve; in practice these assumptions are
unlikely to be significant unless the time constant is very long or you are
considering points close to the start of the calibration curve.

Treatment of the uncertainties is more complicated. If the uncertainties associated with each
point on the calibration curve are assumed to be independent the uncertainties in
the reservoir curve should be smaller. In practice the errors almost certainly
to some extent systematic. They have therefore been treated in exactly the same
way as the concentrations themselves: if *sigma(t)* and *Sigma(t)* are the respective
uncertainties we assume:

If there are also uncertainties in tau the solution of the equations would involve
a double integration which would in practice be very slow. Another algorithm has therefore
been adopted which is to increase the sigma in proportion to the difference between
*R(t)* and *r(t)*. Thus if the uncertainty in tau is *delta _{tau}*:

For the oceans a properly modeled ocean curve should be used
(see Stuiver et al
1998 - marine data). Local
corrections can then be made using a
`Delta_R` correction
term:

See also [Calibration Data]

R

and the proportion of the second curve is *P ± D* then the resultant distribution
is given by:

E

See also [Calibration Data]

*t _{c}* =

*dt _{c}* = -(

Rounding to the nearest *r _{c}* will take place at this stage so you may
notice a slight change in the entered values especially if

Calculation of symmetric probability distributions is simple:

The function used for asymmetric dates is rather more complex:

*p'(t)* = *p(t/f)*

And a proportional error df by using the mapping:

The distribution is then renormalised.

In the program these error factors are normally calculated before each
distribution is reported except in the case of functions such as
`Combine`
which give a resultant distribution when the factor is only applied to the
final result to prevent the systematic errors being reduced in the
combination process.

The probability method (selected for all types of distribution in the
system options) calculates the ranges in a different way (similar to the
method used by van der Plicht 1993).
The elements of the probability distribution array *p _{i}* are sorted by size
and the integral normalised to 1.0.
Starting from the top the array is then integrated until a certain
proportion of the total is achieved
(68.2%, 95.4% or 99.7%) and the level at this point in the distribution
found

If whole ranges are selected from the system options with the probability method a slightly different method is employed in order to generate floruits (see Aitchison et al 1991): the probability distribution is normalised to an integral of 1.0 and then the distribution is integrated from each end until a certain proportion of the curve has been excluded (15.9%, 2.3% or 0.15% from each end); the range defined is then the part of the distribution between these two points.

Integrated distributions (generated by the functions Before and After) define ranges directly from the height of the distribution using the values 0.682, 0.954 and 0.997.

Combinations of probability distributions
(`Combine`)
are simply done by using the Bayesian rules for combinations of
probabilities (see Bayes 1763 and
Doran and Hodgson 1975):
if we have two probability distributions *p _{1}*(t) and

*r(t)* = *p _{1}*(t)

or more generally:

For the purposes of display the maximum of the resultant distributions is always normalised to 1.

If within a group defined for the function
`Combine`
the distributions are given a
`Gap`
*g _{i}* then the combination is performed as:

We can then define a new set of original distributions *p' _{i}* using

*p' _{i}* = r(t+

A very similar method to this is used for wiggle matching using the command
`D_Sequence`,
only difference being the way in which the gap is defined (between each
successive distribution).
A probability distribution *r(t)* is always calculated for the start of the
sequence. This is given by:

and the resultant distributions then calculated using:

In the case of Bayesian wiggle matches and combinations, the program also calculates the chi-squared value for the best fit (ie the highest point on the probability distribution). This is reported in the text log file. For wiggle matching tree ring sequences, where the overall precision can be very high, you use a resolution of one year.

See also [Archaeological Considerations]

and so if a group of events are independent the probability of being after all of them is given by:

This is the distribution (normalised to a maximum of 1) returned by
`After`.
From this a distribution *r'(t)* can be calculated which gives a
probability distribution for the last of the group of events:

*r'(t)* = *d r(t)*/

This is the distribution returned by the request
`Last`
within a phase if MCMC sampling is not needed.

The probabilities of being before a group of events and a distribution for the first event of a phase can be similarly defined.

**WARNING**: These methods assume that the events are entirely independant;
in most cases a much better estimate will be arrived at using MCMC sampling
from a phase which is enclosed within
`Boundary` events.

See also [Archaeological Considerations]

*r(t)* = *p(t-dt)*

If the offset has an error associated with it then *dt+-sigma* the
distribution is given by:

A similar method is used to calculate a probability distribution for
the age difference between two independent distributions (only employed
when MCMC sampling is not necessary) using
`Difference`.

And to shift one distribution by another using
`Shift`:

See also [Archaeological Considerations]

This program uses a mixture of Metropolis-Hastings algorithm and the more specific Gibbs sampler.

The Metropolis-Hastings algorithm uses a set of proposal moves which can both result in changes to single elements of the model or changes to the duration and timing of whole groups. This provides much faster convergence for complex models than the use of the Gibbs sampler on its own.

There are several different methods of implementing the Gibbs sampler; the one employed by this program is that a value t is selected and then p(t) compared to another randomly chosen value r which lies between 0 and max(p(t)); if p(t) > r the value is accepted as a sample; if p(t) < r the process is repeated until it is successful. These sampled values are then collected and a sample distribution generated. If the initial probability distribution is unconstrained an approximation to the initial distribution is produced.

This program is initially set up to do 30,000 iterations which gives fairly smooth distributions for most purposes but reasonable results are achieved much more quickly than this and the process can be stopped after 3,000 iterations. The first 100 iterations are discarded to allow the sampling process to converge.

Every 3000 iterations (called a `pass') the sampled distributions are
saved (and can be plotted by redrawing the window) and checked for
convergence.
The results of the convergence tests are saved in a file `Converg.14L`.
Every 6000 iterations any boundary conditions are relaxed to allow the
system to find a new starting point (this is followed by a new burn-in
period of 100 iterations from which the results are discarded).
A full run consists therefore of five sub-runs each with a new starting
point.
The convergence tests will indicate if convergence is slow or different
starting points have a significant effect on the result.
The convergence test consists of checking the distribution from the
preceding pass, p(t), with the accumulated distribution, P(t) - thus no
real indication of the convergence is given until after two passes.
The function used is an overlap integral of the form:

If the convergence is poor (less than 95%) the pass interval (initially 3000) will be increased by a factor of two. This is repeated until the convergence is satisfactory. The sampling can however be abandonned if necessary but in this case the results should not be used as the model is clearly not stable.

See also [Program Operation] and the section on [Convergence].

The whole operation consists of finding samples from each distribution which are consistent with the constraints (sometimes this is not possible in which case the message `cannot resolve order' is displayed). Each distribution is then sampled always calculating the constraints from the latest sample of the other values. In this way once the constraints have been satisfied they will be for all subsequent sampling iterations.

Since the initial sample may be unrepresentative it is usual to ignore the first few iterations and in this program the first 100 are discarded.

t_i < t_i+1, forall i < n

If a phase
(`Phase`)
is contained within a sequence this becomes a little more
complicated.
If we treat each member of the sequence as a phase of one or more
elements t_ij the constraints for any two subsequent elements of the
sequence will be:

t_ij < t_(i+1)k, forall j and k

These constraints provide a constraint function c(t) which is just an upper and lower limit which can be easily incorporated into the sampling method.

t_(i-1) < t_i, t_(i-1) < t_(i+1)

the constraint distribution for t_i will be given by:

It should be noted that if the error term is too low in this the samples would always be constrained to the initial selection. Also such an initial selection will become increasingly difficult in these circumstances so this method should only be used when the error terms are greater than the resolution defined (in fact the program forces you to do this) and may well fail if the sequence has a large number of element. Such failure will result in very slow progress and the message `improbable value'.

See also [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation]

A justification for the technique can be outlined thus: The geological or
archaeological events under study in any dating research are assumed to be
Poisson distributed through a period of time. The dated events which we put into
our model are also assumed to be Poisson distributed within the intervals between
the archaeological or geological events. In this program the arcaheological or
geological events are denoted by the term
`Boundary`. Ordinary events are put into
the model useing any of the date specification commands or the generic term
`Event` which has no dating information
associated with it.

The boundaries will then divide the events up into a series of phases (in the most general sense - the events could be ordered within this as a sequence). We would like our prior density to be independent of the number of dated events within each phase, and, ideally the overall start and finish to be independent of the number of postulated internal Boundaries. All that follows is a result of these criteria.

The statistical weight of a single phase with a starting boundary b_i, a final boundary b_i+1 and ni events within it, is proportional to:

For this reason a prior probability is applied which is proportional to:

Looking at this in another way, for any boundary b_i there is a preceding
phase with n_(i-1) items (starting with the boundary b_(i-1)) and one
following with
n_i items (ended by another boundary b_(i+1)).
A prior probability function *f(t)* can then be calculated for
the position of b_i:

This is the method outlined by Buck et al 1992.

The first of these is needed because we do not wish the prior for the length of overall sequence of events to depend on the number of boundaries in the model. For this reason the prior is made proportional to:

where b_1 is the first boundary and b_m is the last (ie there are m boundaries in total).

The second addition takes account of the fact that if there is an upper and lower limit independantly applied to the boundaries in general we need to take account of the fact that this will 'favour' shorter spans. This effect can be reversed by applying a prior factor of:

where b_llim is the lower limit for the boundaries and b_ulim is the upper limit.

Together all of these factors give a uniform prior density for the span of the entire sequence of boundaries.

Having boundaries at too many different levels is liable to make the convergence very slow.

See also [Archaeological Considerations] See also [Information from analysis] [Program Operation]

Note that this is not the same as the estimate of a phase boundary assuming a model of uniform deposition of dated material.

Again note that the span calculated in this way does not make any assumptions about the deposition rate and will tend to give results which are too high unless the phase is properly constrained.

See also [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation]

t_i < t_q < t_(i+1)

When all of the iterations have been completed we have a total number of iterations n and the number of times the above constraints were obeyed n_TRUE and so the probability can be calculated:

p = n_TRUE/n

See also [Archaeological Considerations] [Program Operation]

which is a simple overlap integral between the two distributions. We will come back to the subject of the threshold for accepting the agreement as good - this turns out to be about 60% for most purposes.

The most useful definition for the overall agreement is therefore found to be

Variations from 100% will have the same significance as they do for the individual agreements.

With the exception of the power term, this is then a pseudo Bayes-factor
(see for example chapter 9 of Gilks et al 1996
and the agreement indices *A _{i}* are factors of this term. The Bayes factor
here is being used to compare the constrained model to the entirely
unconstrained model. The power term merely provides the convenience of a
suitable acceptance cutoff which is independant of the total number of
terms (see below).

This overall agreement function has some interesting properties.
The first of these can be found by considering the particular case of
combinations of probability distributions (here performed with
`Combine` and
`D_Sequence`):
in such cases the errors are not independent as all of the comparisons are
made with the same posterior distribution which has an error which decreases
with square root of *n*.
The special case of combinations of gaussian distributions (generated with
`C_Date`)
gives identical results to the direct combinations of gaussians (using
`C_Combine`)
and so it seems reasonable that the threshold for acceptance of the
combination should be the same as the chi squared test normally performed.
It turns out (and this can be verified by trying groups of values) that
the threshold for *A _{overall}* which corresponds to the chi squared test at 5% is
equal to:

At this threshold, we can then calculate the logarithmic average of the individual agreement indices that make this up. This is given by:

These results are tabulated here for some values of n:

________________________From this table it can be seen that for most purposes, where the number of constraints is small, a reasonable value of the agreementn A(%)_{n}A'(%) ________________________ 1 70.7 70.7 2 50.0 61.3 3 40.8 59.6 4 35.4 59.5 5 31.6 59.8 6 28.9 60.2 7 26.7 60.7 8 25.0 61.3 9 23.6 61.8 10 22.4 62.3 15 18.3 64.5 20 15.8 66.2 25 14.1 67.6 30 12.9 68.8 40 11.2 70.7 50 10.0 72.2 60 9.1 73.4 80 7.9 75.3 100 7.1 76.7 _________________________{n}

*A' _{c}* = 60%

This is then taken as the threshold of acceptance for the individual agreement indices.

*A _{overall}* was defined to be

The mathematical formulation here is not entirely rigorous, and given the nature of the problem this is probably inevitable. However, these agreement indices do give a good working indication of when a statistical model is inconsistent with the age measurements used.

- File Formats
- Changing Calibration Curves
- Marine Curves and Corrections
- Mixed Calibration Curves
- Default Calibration Curve

File | Contents | Reference |
---|---|---|

IntCal04.14c | Atmospheric data for the N Hemisphere | Reimer et al 2004 |

Marine04.14c | Marine data (requires local correction) | Hughen et al 2004 |

ShCal04.14c | Atmospheric data for the S Hemisphere | McCormac et al 2004 |

The default curve is the atmospheric N hemisphere curve `intcal04.14c`.

Previous versions of the calibration curve are also included: `cal_86.dta` (was called
`cal10.dta` in older versions), `cal_93.dta` (was `cal20.dta`)
and `intcal98.14c`

A post-bomb compilation is also included in `kueppers04.14c` see Kueppers et al 2004 for
details. Because of the very fast rise in radiocarbon over this period a resolution of 0.1 years may work best - or consider whether
a reservoir time constant should be applied - even if only of 1-2 years as this can make a significant difference.

This program will work with any data files intended for the
CALIB (`*.14c`)
or the Groningen program
(`*.dta`).

The current IntCal datasets are based on a BP timescale and are comma delimited. This is recognised by the program by the presence of the
`CAL BP` label in the header. The comment lines are started with a # and the comment included as a
short reference starts with ##. The format is:

CAL BP, 14C age,Error,Delta 14C,SigmaPrevious versions of CALIB used a data format with five columns of numbers:

Calendar_date Delta_14C error 14C_Age errorwhereas the Groningen program uses a basic file format of:

Calendar_date 14C_Age errorThe program automatically detects the format. In addition to the calibration curve data itself the files can also be modified to provide the reference data on the top of the plots. Lines starting with the character

Lines not starting with the reference character or which do not contain data in the right format are ignored.

For environments with a reservoir effect a special curve can be
generated using `Reservoir`.
Samples from the oceans should use a specific
marine curve and `Delta_R`
corrections.

In the Southern Hemisphere the `ShCal.14c` curve should be used.

See [Mathematical Methods]

See [Mathematical Methods]

Plot { Curve "intcal04" "C:\Program Files\OxCal3\intcal04.14c"; Curve "local_marine" "C:\Program Files\OxCal3\marine04.14c"; Delta_R 100 30; Mix_Curves "mixed" "intcal04" "local_marine" 20 5; R_Date 660 35; };See [Mathematical Methods]

- use [File|Analysis Options...] or click on the button
- select a new file

*program_directory*- contains the programs and calibration data
*program_directory*`\Manual`- contains the manual
*program_directory*`\Manual\eg`- example files
*user_directory*- contains your input files
*user_directory*`\Data`- has subdirectories grouping results data
*user_directory*`\Data\Untitled`- results of 'quick' calculations
*user_directory*`\Data\Eg_plot1`- results from Eg_plot1
*user_directory*`\Data\...`- ...etc.

Calibration data files (`*.dta` or `*.14c`) are dealt
with in the section on calibration data.
Input (model definition) files (`*.14i`) are covered in the
CQL command summary and log files
(`*.14l`) are simple text files (with the exception of
`Relate.14l` - see below).
The four remaining file types are probability data files
(`*.14d` or `*.14s`), plot organiser files
(`*.14p`), viewer files (`*.14v`)
and MCMC relationship files (`Relate.14l`).

- If you have given a name then this will be used - the first two and
last three usable characters are used if the name is longer than 6
characters. Thus "OxA-1234" might give
`03ox$234.14d`and "Post hole 3456" might give`04po$456.14d`. - If no name has been given
`R_Date`,`C_Date`and`R_Simulate`will generate file names using an encryption of the input data. Thus R_Date 3000 30; might give a file name of`05$2bc0u.14d`. File names are listed in plot organiser (`.14p`) files so they should not be too hard to find. If you want the data file it is easiest to give it a name yourself. - All other functions generate filenames like
`06_diffe.14d`for Difference if you do not specify a name.

`.14d`- data files before analysis (simple calibration etc)
`.14s`- data files after analysis (including stratigraphic information)
`.14p`- plot organiser files (include references to data files)
`.14v`- viewer files (actual plots)
`.14i`- input or model definition files
`.14l`- log files (including relationship file)
`.dta`- Groningen data files
`.14c`- Seattle data files

Calendar_age Probabilityor if calibration curve data is included (as it usually is for radiocarbon dates):

Calendar_age Probability 14C_Age errorThe former is all that is required if you wish to produce a prior probability distribution in some other way. The resolution used internally will be the smallest gap between any two successive points and the distribution should be given in `oldest first' order.

Additional information is also included in files by lines starting with special characters.

`"`*reference*- As for calibration data files this gives the reference for any data
`$`*title*- Gives the title for the data plot and the label used in multiple plots
`#`*date error*- Gives the date and error of a radiocarbon date (used for the gaussian curve)
`!`*comment*- Gives the title and other comment material for the plot
`_`*sigma from width*- Gives range data for a particular sigma (or probability) confidence limit with a starting calendar age and width - if the width is -1 the range is treated as an `older than' range and if the width is zero it is treated as a `younger than' range
`@`- This data file gives relative ages rather than absolute calendar ages
`*`*nx ny minx miny maxx maxy*- This file contains a correlation plot with
*nx*by*ny*points covering the given range - the data will then be a list of probabilities (one per line) starting at*minx*,*miny*given as rows (in x) `.`*minx maxx*- Can be used to enlarge the range of a plot to encompass the range given
`^`*value*- if
*value*is greater than 1 gives the number of events; otherwise gives the maximum of the normalised curve `%`*n [value]*- If no value is given will set an internal register to
*n*; if a value is given it will be printed (as a percentage) in a multiple-plot only if the internal register is equal to*n*

To edit the data files produced right mouse click on the relevant icon in the plot organiser (see section on graphical display).

Any of the special lines above might be found in a plot file but in addition the following are used:

`/`- Forces a page break at this point
`|`*type*- The next distribution is of a given type
`<`*filename*- Read in a data file (delete when finished with plot)
`{`*filename*- Read in a data file (do not delete it with the plot)
`>`*label*- Plot a label at this point
`>!_`- Draws a solid horizontal line across the page
`>!.`- Draws a dotted horizontal line across the page
`(`*comment*- append this comment to the next label
`)`*comment*- append this to the comment below the last label
`[`*name*- start a structure bracket with the appropriate name
`]`- finish a structure bracket
`~`*value*- define the value for the overall agreement
`&`*value*- define the value for the agreement of this group

The format of the relationship file is fairly simple. Each distribution is introduced with a header line:

$The reference number is used in all of the relationships. The gaps are used for specific purposes (eg sequencing) - they usually represent a periodrefno gap error name

Following such a header there are then a number of lines (can be zero) giving the relationship of this event to the others. The relationships allowed are:

`>`*no*- greater than
`<`*no*- less than
`>>`*no*- greater than a boundary
`<<`*no*- less than a boundary
`=`*no*- equal to
`=`*no1*`-`*no2*- equal to
*no1 - no2* `=`*no1*`+`*no2*- equal to
*no1 + no2* `=`*no1*`*`*no2*- gives a correlation plot between two distributions
`|`*no*- spans a distribution (for spans of phases)
`=>`*no*- equal to or greater than (for finding the ends of phases)
`=<`*no*- equal to or less than (for finding the starts of phases)
`|>`*no*- spans a distribution (only lower end affected)
`|<`*no*- spans a distribution (only upper end affected)
`?>`*no*- asks is this greater than?
`?<`*no*- asks is this less than?
`?|`*no*- asks does this span?
`~>`*no*- approximately greater than (used in V_SEQ)
`~<`*no*- approximately less than (used in V_SEQ)
`~`*no*- approximately equal to
`~~`*no*- approximately equal to
`?~`*no*- asks is this approximately equal to
`??`*no*- asks is this approximately equal to
`?=`*no*- asks is this equal to
`!`*no*- request for information
`:`*no*- order event

If you are in any doubt as to whether the program is working correctly for some complicated configuration, set up a simple example with calendar dates rather than radiocarbon dates and use correlation and difference plots to follow what the program is doing.

The lowest level is simply information you may wish to know (such as which
calibration curve you are using) these are prefixed with the label
`INFORM`.
The next level up are warning error messages which may give rise to
misleading or incorrect results these are given a label
`WARN`.
In both of these cases you are presented with a message box (unless
the system option `Quiet' has been chosen) and you can continue by
clicking on the [Retry] button.
Using the [Abort] button will end the operation as soon as possible
and the [Ignore] button will send the program into `Quiet' mode in
which any errors are printed to the log file but do not generate message
boxes.

Error messages at the next level up `FATAL` will result in the
program finishing and you should close any windows left open and restart
the program.
System errors are errors which have not been trapped by the program and
may be more generally associated with your system - you may need to restart
your computer.

The following is an exhaustive list of the error messages produced by the program in alphabetical order.

**X-Test fails at 5%**- chi squared test has failed with a less than 5% chance of this being a good combination**X-Test value estimated**- For very large number of items an estimate is used for the test level - check with tables if you want**Cannot be sure of range**- A distribution is to be generated in a MCMC sample for which it may not be possible to predict the limits**Cannot extract numerical data**- The program cannot understand an attempt to enter numerical data in a command like`Year`or`Dose`**Cannot find range**- A distribution is to be generated in a MCMC sample for which it is not possible to predict the limits**Cannot find relationship**- Relationship cannot be found for a MCMC sample**Cannot make array**- Either a Windows problem or program attempted to make a very large array - reduce resolution if working on very long time scales**Cannot resolve order**- While MCMC sampling - indicates that an order which obeys all the constraints has not been found - if this persists for a long time reconsider constraints**Command line active**- You are trying to compile two command files at once or do so while a command line is active - not really relevant to this version**Conflicting gaps used with a reference**- References have been made to a file with a gap associated with it - the same gap will be assumed for the second occurrence**Confused boundary setup**- It is not clear which groups of dates this boundary is supposed to be at the edge of**Curve already defined - cannot set Delta_R or Reservoir**- If no filename is defined the program will read back in the previously defined version of this curve; Delta_R and Reservoir should not be set again**Date may extend out of range**- Radiocarbon date that may extend beyond the calibration curve**Date out of range**- Radiocarbon date well beyond range of calibration curve**Date probably out of range**- Radiocarbon date near but probably beyond end of calibration curve**Dose rate undefined**- An attempt has been made to enter a date in terms of a dose without defining the dose rate first**Duplicate names**- While preparing for calculation names have been found which will give rise to identical file names - make first three or last four characters unique for each name**Error in relation**- While reading in a relationship file a relationship could not be parsed**Extensive use of cross referenced boundaries can cause problems**- If you cross reference too many boundaries this can put unexpected biases on the data; try to reformulate the model with fewer cross references**File not found**- A file cannot be found in your working directory**Files not found**- While performing a MCMC sample files were not found**File not renamed to**- The program tried but failed to rename a file - check protection**Help file not found**- Help file not found - not relevant to this version**Improbable value**- While MCMC sampling indicates that the sampler has been forced to choose a very unlikely value - this will slow the sampling down - if it continues throughout the sampling reconsider the constraints**Inappropriate command**- An inappropriate command has been issued - consult the command summary for syntax details**Inappropriate gap error**- Gaps are only allowed errors in some types of group and must have them in others - refer to command summary**Inappropriate nesting**- An attempt has been made to use a command within a group in which it is inappropriate**Incompatable non-linear resolution**- When using inverse-square medelling on a 1/t timescale the resolution of the data files must be the same for all items**Long log file - clear contents**- Log file is getting long for the editor - select yes to purge the log file contents**MCMC sample aborted**- The MCMC sample was stopped before results could be obtained**MCMC sample completed**- The MCMC sample was allowed to finish completely**MCMC sample failed**- The MCMC sample failed to produce meaningful results**MCMC sample terminated**- The MCMC sample was stopped by the user but results were produced**Negative value**- Some values (such as errors) must be positive**No boundaries used - check manual**- No boundaries have been used in this model; this could lead to unrealistically scattered results; see explanation of boundaries**No data found**- No probability data found in what should have been a data file**Not a calendar date**- You have tried to combine a non-calendar date with the calendar date combination function**Not a date**- The value given was not a date**Not a radiocarbon date**- You have tried to combine a non-radiocarbon date with the radiocarbon date combination function**Not calculating range**- Due to form of distribution the range cannot be calculated**Not enough memory**- Either a problem with Windows or your option files have been altered - re-install program**NULL distribution**- The program failed to produce a distribution - probably due to inappropriate values**Number out of range**- A number has been entered or calculated which is beyond the range of the program - increase the system resolution**Numbers not found**- While reading in relationship file inconsistencies were found in the numbering**Only possible for linear modelling**- If you are using the inverse square modeling on a 1/t timescale, spans, differences and intervals etc cannot be used.**Options Saved**- The options have been saved to disc**Parameters not found**- A command which requires parameters has not been given them**Plot only window**- This window is only for plotting**Poor agreement**- Poor agreement detected (roughly equivalent to chi squared test failure at 5%) - may be due to chance but re-evaluate evidence for constraints**Poor convergence**- Poor convergence detected - convergence values (see mathematical methods) are normally above 95% - they are reported for all passes in the special convergence log file - ; see details in Program operation for further tests.**Program active**- You are trying to perform an action which is not allowed during calculation or printing - wait until it has finished**References**- Information on the calibration curve and program option references**Self referential relationship**- A relationship has been defined such as t_1 > t_1**System resolution changed**- A run file has been opened which was saved with a different resolution - the system resolution has been altered accordingly - this will affect*all*subsequent calculations**Too many distributions**- Too many distributions have been entered for a MCMC sample**Unable to open**- A file could not be opened - check protection**Value for function redefined**- The`Error`or`Factor`should only be defined once for a function as they will only be applied once - to the resultant**Values undefined**- At start of MCMC sampling indicates that constraints cannot be applied - should clear fairly quickly**Window active**- The window is already performing some action - wait until it has finished**Wrong file type**- Only files with appropriate extensions can be read in - see appendix on file formats**ZERO distribution**- A distribution has been produced with zero probability

- Aitchison et al 1991
- Aitken 1990
- Bayes 1763
- Bayliss et al 1997
- Bowman 1990
- Bronk Ramsey 1994
- Bronk Ramsey 1995
- Bronk Ramsey and Allen 1995
- Bronk Ramsey 1998
- Bronk Ramsey 2000
- Bronk Ramsey 2001
- Bronk Ramsey, van der Plicht and Weninger 2001
- Buck et al 1991
- Buck et al 1992
- Buck et al 1994
- Christen and Litton 1995
- Dekling 1993
- Doran 1975
- Gelfand and Smith 1990
- Gilks et al 1996
- Harris 1989
- Hughen et al 2004
- Kueppers et al 2004
- Manning and Weninger 1992
- McCormac et al 2004
- Needham et al 1998
- Reimer et al 2004
- Shennan 1988
- Steier and Rom 2000
- Stuiver and Braziunas 1993
- Stuiver and Kra 1986
- Stuiver and Reimer 1986
- Stuiver et al 1993
- Stuiver and Reimer 1993
- Stuiver and van der Plicht 1998
- Stuiver et al 1998
- Stuiver, Reimer and Braziunas 1998
- van der Plicht 1993
- Ward and Wilson 1978

- Aitchison T., B. Ottaway and A.S. Al-Ruzaiza 1991
Summarising a group of 14C dates on the historical time scale: with
a worked example from the late Neolithic of Bavaria
*Antiquity***65**108-16 - Aitken M.J. 1990
*Science-based dating in archaeology*London, Longman - Bayes T.R. 1763 An essay towards solving a
problem in the doctrine of chances
*Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society***53**370-418 - Bayliss A., C. Bronk Ramsey and F.G. McCormac,
1997, Dating Stonehenge,
in (eds. B Cunliffe and C Renfrew)
*Science and Stonehenge*,*Proceedings of the British Academy***92**39-59 - Bowman S. 1990
*Interpreting the past: radiocarbon dating*London, British Museum Publications - Bronk Ramsey C. 1994
Analysis of Chronological Information and Radiocarbon Calibration : The Program OxCal
*Archaeological Computing Newsletter***41**11-16 - Bronk Ramsey C. 1995
Radiocarbon Calibration and Analysis of Stratigraphy: The OxCal Program
*Radiocarbon***37(2)**425-430 - Bronk Ramsey C. and M.J. Allen, 1995,
Analysis of the radiocarbon dates and their archaeological significance,
*Stonehenge in its landscape: twentieth century excavations*, Cleal, R.M.J., K.E. Walker, and R. Montague, eds, London, English Heritage, 526-535 - Bronk Ramsey C., 1998, Probability and Dating,
*Radiocarbon*,**40**(1) 461-474 - Bronk Ramsey C., 2000, Comment on 'The Use of
Bayesian Statistics for 14C dates of chronologically ordered samples: a critical
analysis',
*Radiocarbon*,**42**(2) 199-202 - Bronk Ramsey C., 2001, Development of the
Radiocarbon Program OxCal,
*Radiocarbon*,**43**(2A) 355-363 - Bronk Ramsey C., J. van der Plicht
and B. Weninger 2001, 'Wiggle Matching' radiocarbon dates ,
*Radiocarbon*,**43**(2A) 381-389 - Buck C.E., J.B. Kenworthy, C.D. Litton and
A.F.M. Smith 1991 Combining archaeological and radiocarbon
information: a Bayesian approach to calibration
*Antiquity***65**808-21 - Buck C.E., C.D. Litton and A.F.M. Smith
1992 Calibration of radiocarbon results pertaining to related
archaeological events
*Journal of Archaeological Science***19**497-512 - Buck C.E., C.D. Litton and E.M. Scott
1994 Making the most of radiocarbon dating: some statistical
considerations
*Antiquity***68**252-263 - Christen J.A. and C.D. Litton
1995 A Bayesian approach to wiggle matching
*Journal of Archaeological Science***22**719-725 - Dekling H. and J. van der Plicht
1993 Statistical problems in calibrating radiocarbon dates
*Radiocarbon***35**(1) 239-244 - Doran J.E. and F.R. Hodson eds.
1975
*Mathematics and Computers in Archaeology*Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press - Gelfand A.E. and A.F.M. Smith
1990 Sampling based approaches to calculating marginal
densities
*Journal of the American Statistical Association***85**398-409 - Gilks W.R., S. Richardson and D.J.Speigelhalter
1996
*Markov Chain Monte Carlo in Practice*London, Chapman and Hall - Harris E.C.
1989
*Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy*London, Academic Press - Hughen KA, MGL Baillie, E Bard, A Bayliss, JW Beck, C Bertrand, PG Blackwell,
CE Buck, G Burr, KB Cutler, PE Damon, RL Edwards, RG Fairbanks, M Friedrich,
TP Guilderson, B Kromer, FG McCormac, S Manning, C Bronk Ramsey, PJ Reimer,
RW Reimer, S Remmele, JR Southon, M Stuiver, S Talamo, FW Taylor,
J van der Plicht, and CE Weyhenmeyer. 2004
*Radiocarbon*46:1059-1086. - Kueppers, L. M., J. Southon, P. Baer,
and J. Harte. 2004 Dead wood biomass and turnover time, measured
by radiocarbon, along a subalpine elevation gradient
*Oecologia*, DOI: 10.1007/s00442-004-1689-x - Manning S.W. and B. Weninger
1992 A light in the dark: archaeological wiggle matching
and the absolute chronology of the close of the Aegean
Late Bronze Age
*Antiquity***66**636-63 - McCormac FG, AG Hogg, PG Blackwell, CE Buck, TFG Higham, and PJ Reimer. 2004
SHCal04 Southern Hemisphere Calibration 0 - 1000 cal BP
*Radiocarbon*46, 1087-1092. - Needham S., C. Bronk Ramsey, D. Coombs,
C. Cartwright and P.B. Pettitt, 1998, An Independent Chronology for
British Bronze Age Metalwork: The Results of the Oxford Radiocarbon
Accelerator Programme
*Archaeological Journal*, 154, 55-107 - Reimer PJ, MGL Baillie, E Bard, A Bayliss, JW Beck, C Bertrand, PG Blackwell,
CE Buck, G Burr, KB Cutler, PE Damon, RL Edwards, RG Fairbanks, M Friedrich,
TP Guilderson, KA Hughen, B Kromer, FG McCormac, S Manning, C Bronk Ramsey,
RW Reimer, S Remmele, JR Southon, M Stuiver, S Talamo, FW Taylor,
J van der Plicht, and CE Weyhenmeyer. 2004
*Radiocarbon*46:1029-1058. - Shennan S.
1988
*Quantifying archaeology*Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press - Steier P. and W. Rom, 2000,
The Use of Bayesian Statistics for 14C Dates of Chronologically
Ordered Samples: A Critical Analysis
*Radiocarbon***42**(2) 183-198 - Stuiver M. and T.F. Braziunas
14C Ages of Marine Samples to 10,000 BC
*Radiocarbon***35**(1) 137-189 - Stuiver M. and R.S. Kra eds.
1986 Calibration issue,
Proceedings of the 12th International 14C conference
*Radiocarbon***28**(2B) 805-1030 - Stuiver M. and P.J. Reimer
1986 A computer program for radiocarbon age calculation
*Radiocarbon***28**(2B) 1022-1030 - Stuiver M., A. Long A., and R.S. Kra eds.
1993 Calibration issue
*Radiocarbon***35**(1) - Stuiver M. and P.J. Reimer
1993 Extended 14C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 14C Age
calibration program
*Radiocarbon***35**(1) 215-230 - Stuiver and van der Plicht (eds) 1998 Calibration Issue
*Radiocarbon***40**(3) - Stuiver M., P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, J.W. Beck,
G.S. Burr, K.A. Hughen, B. Kromer, G. McCormac, J. van der Plicht and M.
Spurk 1998 INTCAL98 Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 24000-0 cal BP
*Radiocarbon***40**(3) 1041-1083 - Stuiver M., P.J. Reimer and T.F.Braziunas
High-precision radiocarbon age calibration for terrestrial and marine
samples 1998
*Radiocarbon***40**(3) 1127-1151 - van der Plicht J.
1993 The Groningen radiocarbon calibration program
*Radiocarbon***35**(1) 231-237

- Ward G.K. and S.R. Wilson 1978 Procedures for combining radiocarbon age
determinations: a critique Archaeometry
**20**(1) 19-31

INFORM : References - M. Stuiver, A. Long and R.S. Kra eds. 1993 Radiocarbon 35(1); OxCal v3 cub r:4 sd:12 prob[chron] ( Sequence R_Date : 2760±40BP 68.2% confidence 982BC (12.4%) 960BC 935BC (31.9%) 890BC 883BC (23.9%) 844BC 95.4% confidence 999BC (95.4%) 830BC ( Phase R_Date : 2700±30BP 68.2% confidence 897BC (31.4%) 870BC 854BC (36.8%) 823BC 95.4% confidence 906BC (95.4%) 811BC R_Date : 2800±40BP 68.2% confidence 1000BC (68.2%) 912BC 95.4% confidence 1048BC (95.4%) 843BC ) Phase R_Date : 2660±40BP 68.2% confidence 891BC ( 6.4%) 882BC 845BC (61.8%) 802BC 95.4% confidence 900BC (95.4%) 798BC ) Sequence ( MCMC Sampled : 2760±40BP 68.2% confidence 998BC (68.2%) 922BC 95.4% confidence 1032BC (95.4%) 884BC Agreement 84.9% Sampled : 2700±30BP 68.2% confidence 900BC (43.3%) 865BC 855BC (24.9%) 832BC 95.4% confidence 909BC (95.4%) 819BC Agreement 101.1% Sampled : 2800±40BP 68.2% confidence 968BC (65.7%) 898BC 862BC ( 2.5%) 857BC 95.4% confidence 984BC (95.4%) 843BC Agreement 93.5% Sampled : 2660±40BP 68.2% confidence 834BC (68.2%) 803BC 95.4% confidence 880BC (95.4%) 794BC Agreement 116.9% Overall agreement 96.9% ) MCMC 29496 iterations used

2760±40BP -982.4 -844 -999.2 -830.4 2700±30BP -897.2 -823.2 -906 -810.8 2800±40BP -999.6 -911.6 -1048 -843.2 2660±40BP -890.8 -801.6 -900 -798 @2760±40BP -998.4 -921.6 -1031.6 -883.6 @2700±30BP -899.6 -831.6 -908.8 -818.8 @2800±40BP -968.4 -857.2 -984 -843.2 @2660±40BP -834.4 -803.2 -880 -794.4

$ 3 0 0 $24O14 < 5 < 6 $ 5 0 0 $2300U > 3 < 7 $ 6 0 0 $25S14 > 3 < 7 $ 7 0 0 $21W14 > 5 > 6

PASS 1 $24O14 99.7% $2300U 99.8% $25S14 99.5% $21W14 99.5% PASS 2 $24O14 99.4% $2300U 99.7% $25S14 99.3% $21W14 99.6% PASS 3 $24O14 99.3% $2300U 99.5% $25S14 99.5% $21W14 99.2% PASS 4 $24O14 99.4% $2300U 99.6% $25S14 99.5% $21W14 99.7% PASS 5 $24O14 99.6% $2300U 99.6% $25S14 99.4% $21W14 99.7% PASS 6 $24O14 99.6% $2300U 99.4% $25S14 99.4% $21W14 99.5% PASS 7 $24O14 99.5% $2300U 99.4% $25S14 99.5% $21W14 99.5% PASS 8 $24O14 99.5% $2300U 99.6% $25S14 99.3% $21W14 99.7% PASS 9 $24O14 99.4% $2300U 99.7% $25S14 99.4% $21W14 99.6%

- Changes to extend the range of the calibration curve at standard resolution
- Changes to accept the new format of the IntCal04 calibration curve
- Fix of bug giving wrong results with Gap nested within Combine groupings (introduced in v3.7 while fixing another problem)

- Minor changes to overcome bugs with long filenames and comments
- Fix for a bug resulting in incorrect axis scales on correlation plots
- Changed R_simulate to take into account uncertainty in the calibration curve (also implemented in versions prior to 3.3). This should be better for most simulations but will lead to excessive scatter when there are many dates within the same decade

- Allows calibration using atmospheric data sets for period >1950 (data not provided)
- Command line version of program distributed for batch processing

- Fixed bug which gave cumulative rounding errors on very long D_Sequence calculations when the resolution was not set to 1 (or to some common factor of all the gaps)
- Allowed for greater variation in the calibration curve prior to 20,000BP

- Modification to allow operation on computers with no write access to the Windows directory

- Added Wizard for applying Delta_R and reservoir corrections to calibration curves
- Choice of specific rounding resolution
- Choice of initial iteration number for MCMC sampling (max 30,000,000)
- Raised upper limit of MCMC sampling to 100,000,000 iterations
- Minimum chi-squared value now reported with Wiggle matches (D_Sequence).
- Bug associated with specification of data files (Priors) fixed
- Display bugs associated with printing and copying fixed

- Various bug fixes
- Addition of wizard to help with mixed curves

- Addition of Mixed calibration curves
- Several bug fixes on the plotting routine
- Improved access to the help system
- Input and output wizards to help with frequently used operations
- Clarification (?) of user interface

- Fix of bug in v3.2/3.3(beta1) relating to empty uniform phases
- Fix of other minor cosmetic bugs
- Further optimisation of MCMC sampling procedures
- Correction of a few errors in the manual

- Updating of manual
- Incorporation of auto-boundaries
- Fixing of TAQ/TPQ bug introduced into version 3.2
- Fixing of various display bugs
- Further improvement of calibration algorithm for plateaux

- Substantially rewritten display program - abondons OLE embedding as this caused many reliability problems
- Improved treatment of TAQ/TPQ for multiple events
- Allowance for XReferences of Boundaries
- Fixing of calibration bug (incorrect treatment of variable calibration curve errors)
- Incorporation of IntCal98 data-set.

- Substantially re-written user interface. Full 32-bit Windows95 software based on Microsoft Foundation Classes.
- Many bug fixes
- All calculations now in floating point rather than integer form
- Plots OLE compatible with alterable axes, labels etc.
- Too many detailed changes to list.

- D_SEQ now works correctly with
`ORDER`and`DIFF` - A bug which prevented the menu item [Options|Calibration curve] from being used from within a multiplot was sorted out
- Improvements to the manual: the mathematical parts should now print properly and there is updated information on the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Lab

- No change in the calculations from v2.15
- Serious bug in Windows interface finally found - this made the program unusable on some machines with some combinations of programs. Unfortunately this problem never manifested itself on any of our computers - apologies for the delay in fixing this.
- The Y axis label on calibration plots has been changed from Radiocarbon date to Radiocarbon determination

- No fundamental change from v2.15 but ability to cope with longer strings and filenames
- Improved X-axis handling when pasting plots into other documents.

- The manual and examples have been updated to stress the point that radiocarbon
dates for a single event should, in general, be combined before calibration using
`R_COMB`not after calibration using`COMB`. - Correction of a fault which occasionally affected
`BOUND`calculations; this resulted in unbounded ranges and truncated distributions for boundaries at the end of phases; the problem is believed to have been introduced in version 2.14 while attempting to fix another bug. - Improved copying and pasting into other documents without large areas of blank space; for use with this, there are options to miss off the X-axis label and agreement indices to give clearer plots.
- Posterior distributions in multiplots are now shown with italic labels instead of the `@' sign (this is optional).
- Reversing the order no longer changes the order of the calculations but only what is plotted in sequences; this was to clear up problems with multiple calibration curves.
- A few minor display related bugs have been eliminated.

- Correction of a bug which occasionally
affected
`BOUND`calculations. - Correction of a possible bug affecting open ended ranges (such as dates close to the end of the calibration curve).

- Option to round ranges
- Subranges with probabilities less than 1% of total range omitted
- Ability to generate calibration curves for systems with simple reservoir effects
(
`RESERV`) - Ability to generate local marine calibration curves using
`DELTA_R`values along with a one of the modeled world ocean marine curves

- Some low level bug fixes
- Option to use different calibration curves for different samples
using
`CURVE` - Improvements to the manual including help on the menu structure

- Area normalisation on multi-plots

- Uniform phases (
`BOUND`) containing sequences are treated correctly - Bug related to ordering of
`FIRST`and`LAST`elements corrected `ORDER`function reports a matrix showing the order of pairs of events- Sums (
`SUM`) are treated as phases rather than events - a sum of distributions gives a chronological distribution for several events and should therefore not be treated as for a single event. - Alignment grid added to plots (optional)
- BP label added to radiocarbon date labels
- Options added for font style and size
- Improved control over axes using
`AXIS` - Direct access to help from the program
- Improved file handling enables working directory to be different from program directory - this should make networking easier

- No change to calculations or modelling
- Program recompiled with some possible low level bugs removed
- Windows help file manual added

- First official release

- Bug fixes
- Linear deposition model
- Plotting of distributions against depth
- Direct dating of boundaries
- Exponential model
- Ability to model systematic offsets
- Display of archaeological periods with the Calendar year axis
- Plots against Oxygen isotope records and other chronological data

- File operations
- New document
- Open a document
- Save current document

- General editing operations
- Cut current selection
- Copy current selection
- Paste

- Print and Help
- Help

- Generating single plots
- Generate a calibration curve plot
- Calibrate a radiocarbon date
- Simulate a radiocarbon date
- Calibrate a %modern radiocarbon date

- Multiplots and Models
- Entering data
- Insert radiocarbon dates into plot
- Paste data from a spreadsheet (name, date, error)

- Calculation
- Change analysis options
- Analyse current input/model file
- Open analysis results manually (should be automatic after calculation has finished)

- Viewing ouput
- Generate multi-plots from plot organiser
- Generate individual plots
- Generate a plot on the calibration curve
- View log files
- Copy ranges to spreadsheet

- Cleaning up temporary files
- Destroy output data files for this project

- Entering data

- [File]
- [New] New document
- [Open] Open document
- [Close] Close document
- [Save] Save document
- [Save As] Save document (new name)
- [Print] Print document
- [Print Preview] Preview print format
- [Print Setup] Setup printer
- [Quick Calculation] Quick calibration or calculation
- [Analysis Options] Change analysis options
- [1...] Recently opened documents
- [Exit] Exit the program

- [Edit]
- [Undo] Undo last action
- [Cut] Cut current selection
- [Copy] Copy current selection
- [Paste] Paste
- [Select All] Select whole document
- [Find] Find a string
- [Find Next] Find next string
- [Replace] Replace a string

- [View]
- [Toolbar] Show/hide the toolbar
- [Status bar] Show/hide the status bar
- [Plot Options]
- [Zoom...] Relative size of plots produced
- [Font...] Font used in plots
- [Options...] Options for plotting (plot content)
- [Style...] Style of plot (can be altered later)

- [Calibration Curve] View the calibration curve

- [Window]
- [New Window] Open a duplicate view on a document
- [Cascade] Cascade windows
- [Tile] Tile windows
- [Arrange Icons] Arrange the icons

- [Help]
- [Contents] Contents of manual
- [Index] Index of manual
- [About OxCal] Version number

- [Edit]
- [Paste data] Paste data from spreadsheet (name, date, error)
- [Insert radiocarbon date] Insert radiocarbon data into plot
- [Insert tree rings] Enter a tree ring sequence

- [File]
- [Analyse...] Analyse this document
- [Open analysis results] Open results of the analysis

- [Help]
- [Input wizard] Start the input wizard
- [Project documents] Help on setting up input data

- [File]
- [Create Plots] Create multi-plots for this analysis
- [Individual Plots] Create individual plots
- [Plot on Curve] Create plots on the calibration curve
- [Open Log Files] Open the log files for this analysis
- [Destroy Plot Data] Destroy output data files for this project

- [Edit]
- [Copy data] Copy ranges to spreadsheet

- [Help]
- [Output wizard] Start output wizard
- [Plot Organiser Documents] Information on organising output data

- Open a document
- Save current document
- Print the active document
- Change plot options
- Copy picture to clipboard
- Increase plot size
- Decrease lot size
- Go to the first page
- Go to the previous page
- Go to the next page
- Go to the last page
- Explore the calibration curve
- Move left in the calibration curve
- Move right in the calibration curve
- Cover a wider area of the calibration curve
- Cover a smaller area of the calibration curve
- Diplay program information

- [File]
- [Open] Open an new document
- [Save] Save changes to the current document
- [Save As] Save with a different name
- [Options] Change plot options
- [Print] Print current document
- [Print Preview] Preview the print output
- [Print Setup] Setup the printer
- [1...] Recently opened documents
- [Exit] Exit from the program

- [Edit]
- [Copy Graphics] Copy graphics to clipboard

- [View]
- [Toolbar] Toggle toolbar use
- [Status Bar] Toggle use of status bar
- [Font] Alter the font for this plot
- [Adjust Axes] Adjust the axes
- [Modify Labels] Change the labels in this plot
- [Style] Style options for this plot
- [Zoom] Change to a specific plot size
- [Zoom In] Increase plot size
- [Zoom Out] Desrease plot size
- [Explore Curve] Explore the calibration curve (only for plots on the curve)

- [Window]
- [First Page] Go to the first page
- [Page Up] Go to the previous page
- [Page Down] Go to the next page
- [Last Page] Go to the last page

- [Help] Diplay program information